Blueberry and/or Banana Consumption Mitigate Arachidonic, Cytochrome P450 Oxylipin Generation During Recovery From 75-Km Cycling: A Randomized Trial

David C Nieman, Nicholas D Gillitt, Guan-Yuan Chen, Qibin Zhang, Wei Sha, Colin D Kay, Preeti Chandra, Kristine L Kay, Mary Ann Lila
Front Nutr . 2020 Aug 7;7:121.

Oxylipins are bioactive lipid oxidation products, have vital regulatory roles in numerous physiological processes including inflammation, and can be impacted by diet. This study determined if 2-weeks of blueberry and/or acute banana ingestion influenced generation of n-6 and n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins during recovery from exercise-induced physiological stress. Cyclists (n = 59, 39 ± 2 years of age) were randomized to freeze-dried blueberry or placebo groups, and ingested 26 grams/d (1 cup/d blueberries equivalent) for 2 weeks. Cyclists reported to the lab in an overnight fasted state and engaged in a 75-km cycling time trial (185.5 ± 5.2 min). Cyclists from each group (blueberry, placebo) were further randomized to ingestion of a water-only control or water with a carbohydrate source (Cavendish bananas, 0.2 g/kg carbohydrate every 15 min) during exercise. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-2-weeks blueberry supplementation, and 0, 1.5, 3, 5, 24, and 48 h-post-exercise. Plasma oxylipins and blueberry and banana metabolites were measured with UPLC-tandem MS/MS. Significant time by treatment effects (eight time points, four groups) were found for 24 blueberry- and seven banana-derived phenolic metabolites in plasma (FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Significant post-exercise increases were observed for 64 of 67 identified plasma oxylipins. When oxylipins were grouped relative to fatty acid substrate [arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA)], and enzyme systems [cytochrome P450 (CYP), lipoxygenase (LOX)], banana and blueberry ingestion were independently associated with significant post-exercise reductions in pro-inflammatory ARA-CYP hydroxy- and dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs, DiHETrEs) (treatment effects, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). These trial differences were especially apparent within the first 3 h of recovery. In summary, heavy exertion evoked a transient but robust increase in plasma levels of oxylipins in cyclists, with a strong attenuation effect linked to both chronic blueberry and acute banana intake on pro-inflammatory ARA-CYP oxylipins.

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